Tag Archives: Suede

“Patriotism is not enough”: Depictions of Englishness in Late 20th Century Fiction and ‘Cool Britannia’ Rhetoric



In 2002, English novelist Hilary Mantel opined that “The English sense of identity is beginning to fracture” (104). Following a turbulent century in which the British Empire disintegrated, widespread immigration to the UK saw a newly multicultural society rocked by racial tensions, and the British Parliament devolved powers to independent Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish regional parliaments, a drastic shift in perceptions of national identity was inevitable. Critics, as a result, have widely agreed with Mantel.

Despite this alleged fragmentation, a cultural movement espousing a nationalist agenda emerged during the 1990s. Referred to as ‘Cool Britannia’ in the press from 1996 onwards, it celebrated homegrown successes in the arts. Several of the scenes under the ‘Cool Britannia’ banner accrued distinct genre tags prefixed with ‘Brit-’ to highlight their nationality; ‘Britpop’, the rock music scene of the time, and ‘Britart’, work by the period’s clique of artists that rose to prominence as a result of Charles Saatchi’s ‘Young British Artists’ exhibitions, are two of the most well-known examples. Such was the influence of this movement that New Labour, following their landslide General Election victory in 1997, sought to rebrand Britain on the strength of it.[1]  This initiative sought to reinvent Britain’s image overseas by rejecting outdated, heritage-based signifiers of British identity in favour of a more modern depiction of what Robin Cook, the Foreign Secretary, described as “a dynamic, self-confident, outward-looking society, proud of its place as a leading partner in Europe and a pivotal nation in the world” (Ward).

However, in spite of the movement’s support for British contributions to popular culture – almost exclusively English contributions, a confusion to be critiqued in due course – contemporary English literature was alienated from the movement. Accordingly, it has largely been overlooked in literary scholarship thus far. Yet the movement’s promotion of an Anglocentric agenda brought discussion of contemporary English identity to the fore, making it relevant to ongoing critical debates about national identity. As critics of both contemporary literature and ‘Cool Britannia’ agree on several key issues – including the aforementioned confusion of ‘Britishness’ with ‘Englishness,’ thereby reinforcing English domination of British identity, and the problem of exclusivity posed by the existence of a homogenous ‘English’ identity – there is clearly scope to fuse these debates and consider the two fields in tandem.

This paper will attempt to bridge the gap between these two areas of scholarship by examining London Fields by Martin Amis and England, England by Julian Barnes alongside key works from the ‘Cool Britannia’ era and contemporary journalism. In doing so, I will compare the ‘Cool Britannia’ depictions of England and English identity with those portrayed in late twentieth century literature. I will argue that literature was alienated from ‘Cool Britannia’ rhetoric because the latter’s proliferation of reductive forms of English identity sought to promote a coherent, reified English identity, whereas Barnes and Amis used postmodern theories and techniques to challenge both established signifiers of Englishness and the notion of national identity itself. These two ideologies were therefore not only disparate, but incompatible.

Neither author was aligned with the ‘Cool Britannia’ movement; indeed, London Fields was published in 1989, long before ‘Cool Britannia’ emerged. Nevertheless, its appropriation as a major inspiration for the Britpop band Blur’s 1994 album Parklife – the first ‘Britpop’ album to push a coherent English agenda into wider public consciousness – proved that Amis’s ideas on national identity were as relevant in the mid-1990s as they were at the tail-end of the 1980s.However, the distance maintained from these ideas allowed them to use satire to exploit and undermine flaws in the traditional English identities, such as those advocated by the movement. These flaws include the lingering taint of Imperialism, the tendency to marginalise communities outside of London, and the tendency to reduce English identity to lists of disparate signifiers.

My argument will be developed over three sections. The first section will establish the ‘Cool Britannia’ depiction of English identity using political, journalistic and musical rhetoric from the 1990s, as I believe they were the three most influential sectors to proliferate the myth of ‘Cool Britannia’. The following sections will focus on outlining the ways in which late 20th century English fiction questions the English identity projected by ‘Cool Britannia’. The second will examine how Martin Amis’s London Fields distorts established tropes of English identity, particularly class-based stereotypes and the centralisation of London, using an unreliable narrator and narrative fragmentation. In this section, Parklife is used to illustrate how the ‘Cool Britannia’ celebration of London, which endorses its centralisation, is at odds with Amis’s vision of the city. In the third section, England, England by Julian Barnes will be scrutinised in tandem with Mark Leonard’s 1997 pamphlet Britain™: Renewing Our Identity, the primary inspiration behind New Labour’s ‘rebranding of Britain’ policy. This section discusses the notion of English identity as a global brand, replication and authenticity, using Jean Baudrillard’s theory of simulacra and simulation to argue that the replication of stereotypes associated with Englishness projects a depiction of English identity with no basis in reality.

It is important to clarify my definitions of ‘Cool Britannia’ and ‘Britpop’ in advance. The Oxford English Dictionary Online defines ‘Cool Britannia’ as a cultural movement associated with the perception of “Britain… as a stylish and fashionable place, esp. (in the late 1990s) as represented by the international success of and interest in contemporary British art, popular music, film, and fashion” (‘Cool Britannia’).[2] While I largely agree with this definition, I will challenge one detail of it. I would suggest that the time span specified be widened to include the early and mid-1990s, as the different scenes that comprised ‘Cool Britannia’ developed at different rates. ‘Britart’, for example, gained popular momentum from 1992 onwards as a result of the ‘Young British Artists’ exhibitions – the very name of which suggests a collective British identity. ‘Britpop’, on the other hand, had originated in the patriotic manifesto originally embraced by the bands Suede and Blur in 1992 as a reaction against the pervasive American ‘grunge’ culture, but did not reach mainstream public consciousness until August 1995.[3] The early 1990s are, therefore, crucial to the accumulation of patriotic sentiment that resulted in the construction of an overarching ‘Cool Britannia’ rhetoric.

While ‘Britpop’ has sometimes been used to describe British pop music generally, it will here describe the 1990s rock music scene that, despite its name suggesting a scene encompassing Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish artists, consisted entirely of English bands. The bands who most vociferously endorsed an Anglocentric ethos in the press and their lyrics were Suede, Pulp, and Blur, whose support for the English cause manifested itself in a trilogy of albums from 1993 to 1995 whose lyrics consistently centred on the minutiae and absurdity of English life. However, the most successful of these was Mancunian quintet Oasis, whose 1995 album (What’s The Story) Morning Glory? is, at the time of writing, the fourth biggest-selling British album in UK history (Lane).

With the exception of Pulp, preeminent Britpop bands invariably featured all-male line-ups. Yet women were not necessarily excluded from the Britpop narrative. Several successful bands, including Sleeper, Echobelly and Elastica, had line-ups that were either female-led or female-dominated. Yet ‘Cool Britannia’ became associated with ‘lad culture’ – a phenomenon fuelled by the popularity of ‘lad’ magazine Loaded magazine, launched in 1994. Sheila Whiteley suggests that:

The media focused more on the regional rivalry between Oasis and Blur, stressing a musical family tree which was rooted in territorial fraternalism. As such, its female bands, Elastica, Echobelly and Sleeper could only be relegated to second-division players if Britpop was to retain its identity. (271)

She also points out that the objectification or overlooking of women in ‘Cool Britannia’ was “partially rescued by the Spice Girls’ girl-power fun feminism” (271), although the band’s divergence from the Britpop sound – that of “guitar-led groups… drawing on specifically British influences… such as the Beatles, mod [and] glam rock” (‘Britpop’) – would arguably prevent them from being considered a Britpop band.

While Minister for Culture, Media and Sport Tessa Jowell’s dismissal of the ‘Cool Britannia’ in 2001 explicitly marked the end of New Labour’s exploitation of it (Laughlin), the movement had fizzled out long before this. John Harris suggests that Britpop had collapsed by late 1997, as Blur had abandoned their support of both New Labour and a pro-English schema, while alternative music journalism began to focus on more musically iconoclastic bands such as Radiohead and Spiritualized (Harris 347-8). Both this and the post-General Election disillusionment felt by the pop cultural press with Tony Blair by 1998 (Harris 358), whose administration had been bound up in ‘Cool Britannia’ discourse by its propaganda efforts, resulted in celebrations of nationality in the press beginning to wane. Following the failure of New Labour projects intended to help ‘rebrand’ Britain, such as the Millennium Dome, Tessa Jowell summarised that Cool Britannia “failed because it did not realise that ‘our national culture is something amorphous, something changing, and something complex’ defined by and open to external influences” (Laughlin) – a statement that, I believe, fairly reflects the limitations of attempting to comprehensively define national identity in a tumultuous period of history.

[1] Prior to the election, the party associated themselves with some of Britpop’s leading figureheads to appeal to younger voters. Examples of this, such as Damon Albarn of Blur meeting with Tony Blair at the Houses of Parliament in 1995 so he could be cajoled into supporting the party in the media (Harris 196-200), are outlined in more detail in John Harris’s comprehensive guide to Britpop, The Last Party: Britpop, Blair and the Demise of English Rock.

[2] This is not necessarily an exhaustive list. At times, national success in sport also contributed to patriotic rhetoric, particularly during the England-based UEFA European Football Championship in 1996.

[3] In 1995, rival Britpop bands Blur and Oasis released singles on the same day in what became known as the ‘Battle of Britpop’. The polemic potential of the bands’ disparate backgrounds, satirised by Pat Kane as “North against South, middle against working class, fops against thugs” (15), sparked a media frenzy.

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10 Ways To Maintain A Music Obsession On A Budget

.            If, like me, you’re a poor student but love music, it’s sometimes difficult to balance the books when on one hand you need something to make your undercooked pasta palatable, but on the other really need Graham Coxon’s new album. You could go and illegally download it all, but that could hypothetically get you in a lot of trouble, plus by stealing from your favourite artists you’re compromising your position as a true music fan. (Puts away soapbox.) Fortunately, there are ways around a music obsession that are either free or fairly cheap and, best of all, 100% legal. Some, like using free websites to listen to music or buying albums second-hand, are pretty obvious; others, like downloading free record company samplers or signing up to mailing lists, may not have occurred to you.

I couldn't have made this if I'd spent your average HMV-priced £12.99 on all of them. (photo from April 2011)

Free Listening
1. Making use of
Spotify, YouTube, SoundCloud etc. This mostly depends on your ethics as a listener. If you believe that the artist should get the best deal, Spotify is probably not for you; its dodgy financial scheme for the artists is well documented, with some estimates saying that it takes 90,000 plays for an artist to earn £8 from it. However, through listening to the thousands of albums on there, you may discover an obscure artist, love them and decide to buy their entire back catalogue, every piece of merchandise they’ve ever made and tickets to every leg of their autumn university tour, which’ll earn them a lot more than £8… well, before the taxman and record companies get to it, anyway. Should you decide to subscribe, then Spotify is way better value  and cheaper per month than Netflix – you pay for the privilege of bonus tracks, (some) brand new albums, listening to songs more than five times and, most importantly, not having to hear those unbearable ‘sign up to vote!’ adverts every three songs. Money well spent.

2.    Early streaming of albums on the Guardian, NME, Soundcloud etc. Patience is a virtue that has all but disappeared in the Internet age, especially when it comes to entertainment. Victims of leaked albums recently include the Queen of Pop, Madonna, and indie heavyweight Jack White. To satiate fans’ eagerness to hear new material, some artists grant websites permission to stream their new albums – the Guardian (Graham Coxon) and NME (Orbital) springing to mind in particular. Others, like Santigold, ally themselves with no particular media outlet and prefer to upload it to Soundcloud for fans to listen to [here]. It’s a great way not only to evade the moral guilt of ripping artists off, but also to check whether their new material is worth buying. After all, you may not be supporting them financially, but a) you’re on a budget, and b) they should’ve made a better album. Think of all those people who’d have saved money, time and effort if Soundcloud had existed in 1975 and Lou Reed had put Metal Machine Music on it.

Free (legal) owning: Signing up to artists’ mailing lists for free tracks. Artists always want you to be on their mailing list so they can spam you silly with details of new releases, tours and other money-spinners. One of their favourite ways of doing this is to promise free tracks to those that sign up. With the likes of Marina and the Diamonds and Beady Eye sending their mailing list new tracks ahead of their physical/iTunes release, and the Pixies rewarding their mailing list with a free live EP, it’s a great way not only to get up to date on their newest tracks, but find out things before anyone else courtesy of the spam. Although it’s more SUPER USEFUL INFORMATION than spam if you’re a fan.

4.     Free (legal) owning: Downloading free record company samplers. Amazon’s spam emails turned out to be the useful ones as far as instructing me in this goes. Turns out that loads of independent labels release free sampler albums through Amazon – a sampler album basically being a compilation album of songs by bands on their roster. Although the majority of these are by obscure artists (Chadwick Stokes, anyone?), some of the names are either established stars, such as the Arctic Monkeys on the Domino sampler, or names you’ll hear bandied about on Pitchfork (Anna Calvi, The Kills, Ladytron). My favourite samplers to date have been the Nettwerk and Domino samplers. Admittedly there aren’t many decent-looking ones around at the moment, unless you love worship music or award-winning classical stuff, but the Mr Bongo one sounds promising and could open you up to the work of a record label you’d never have heard of otherwise.

5. Free (legal) owning: iTunes’ free Song of the Week. In between helping to beat up physical music formats and monopolise the download market, iTunes has time to feature a Song of the Week for free – only free for a week, mind you. Bands who’ve had this vital exposure include Cage the Elephant (‘Around My Head’), Jen’s favourite duo Best Coast (‘Boyfriend’), and them wot done the original version of ‘Heartbeats’, The Knife (‘We Share Our Mothers’ Health’). Occasionally featured songs have been known to snowball in popularity, with ex-Song of the Week ‘Fireflies’ by Owl City going on to top the chart in seven different countries, including both the UK and USA. So it’s not only great for slowly boosting your music library, but you could own a sleeper hit for free, months before it gets boosted to the lofty heights of £0.99.

6.    Free (legal) owning: self-leaking – bands releasing their albums for free through newspapers or on their website. Radiohead started the trend for bizarre marketing strategies with the ‘pay what you want’ scheme for seventh studio album In Rainbows. Although it’s estimated a third of fans paid nothing, the average price paid for the download version in the three-month ‘pay what you want’ window was £3.88, and the pre-order sales of the physical copy apparently outstripped the total sales figures for predecessor Hail to the Thief – so it’s not even ripping off the band. Prince altered the strategy, instead releasing 2007 album Planet Earth through The Mail on Sunday, sparking artists including Jen’s serial not-even-guilty pleasure McFly and Prince again (this time with the Daily Mirror) to follow in his footsteps with a pared-down edition of Radio:active and 20TEN respectively. Even if it means buying a really crap newspaper, free music! And you can draw comedy facial hair/eyebrows/tattoos on David Cameron, which is always a bonus in my opinion.

7. Free (legal) owning: For deluxe albums or boxsets, entering Superdeluxeedition’s competitions to win the latest remastered or deluxe editions of classic albums. If you, like me, prefer having a tangible copy of an album as opposed to owning it in MP3 format, you can still get those for free without leaving your chair… maybe. Just enter one of Superdeluxeedition’s frequent competitions and you could be a winner. Recent competitions have had prizes of David Bowie, The Jesus & Mary Chain, Suede and Pink Floyd’s remastered/deluxe albums for lucky winners. All that’s usually required for entry is to follow them on Facebook or Twitter and answer a question or retweet. Unlike those famous ‘YOU ARE THE 10,000TH VISITOR!! CLICK HERE TO RECLAIM YOUR PRIZE OF LANA DEL REY BALANCING NAKED UPON A PINK UNICORN!!’ adverts on dubious websites, you will actually get your prize if you’re a winner.

8. Cheap owning: Utilise any of the following: Amazon, eBay, charity shops, HMV’s famous 2 for £10 sales… I don’t think this needs any explanation… If you’re looking for second-hand CD singles or cassettes, check the charity shops in your area rigorously before committing to the £2.50 rip-offs on Amazon or eBay – charity shops will frequently be hiding these gems behind the copies of Sugababes’ Three album, which seems to be the most popular album on charity shop shelves from several years’ experience. Incidentally, if you want a copy of Suede’s eponymous debut album on cassette, let me know and I can get one for you for 50p from Acorn Records in Truro. I just want it to go to a good home, ok? Ok??

Live Music
Free gigs in pubs, bars and cafes. Bands tour on what is known as the ‘pub circuit’ for good reason – it involves lots of pubs. If you’re just going for a quiet drink on a Saturday evening, bands are a major nuisance, but if you’re missing your live fix while also missing a positive bank balance, this’ll have to do. You probably won’t find the next Bowie in your local offy, but you might find a decent enough singer. It’s slightly friendlier than camping outside your local music festival, straining to hear what Morrissey’s singing over the crowd screaming (a similarly free way to listen to gigs), and you may even make friends with the drunk, slightly sweaty bloke next to you in the Van Halen t-shirt!

10. Befriend musicians, or encourage your friends to start a band. Free entry to all gigs with none of the cost of instruments, and an inimitable chat-up line – “I’m with the band”. Groupies, get in line…

What IS Britpop?

.     My mother asked me this question last week, squeezing a word in edgeways as I babbled on about my Britpop-related dissertation ideas. I was gobsmacked – how could she not know what Britpop was when she lived through it? (Answer: Concentrating on having and looking after children, apparently.) Seeing as it’s not the first time I’ve been asked this question, and having quite a few articles on here about it, I’ll try to explain it. Possibly in too much detail, for which I apologise; it’s difficult to condense one’s favourite topic…
.     Having said that, if you’ve got a spare few days, more than a few pounds and are actually interested enough to spend both of those on enlightening yourself about Britpop, buy John Harris’s ‘The Last Party: Britpop, Blair and the Demise of English Rock’. This is the book that turned me from being interested-enough-to-write-a-novel-about-the-era-but-who-are-Suede? to I-WILL-BUY-A-PARTICULAR-ISSUE-OF-NME-FOR-FIVE-TIMES-ITS-ORIGINAL-PRICE-ON-EBAY-AND-TOUR-LONDON-LOOKING-FOR-THE-PLACE-WHERE-SUEDE-HAD-THEIR-FIRST-GIG*. It’s well-written, ceaselessly entertaining and, in many places, proof that real life is truly stranger than fiction. Honestly, who needs Dickens and his obese prose when you can have a Mercury Music Prize-winning band recruiting a 17-year-old schoolboy from Poole to replace their erstwhile guitarist? (Or you could read this very good blog article by someone who was actually around when Britpop was. I don’t count being in playschool as being around when Britpop was.)
.     Onwards…

Music weekly Select championing Suede, the first important Britpop band.

When?: [Tl;dr rough answer: Spring 1992 – summer 1997.]
.     As with any movement, there’s no concrete beginning or end. Most estimates consider the release of Blur’s ‘Popscene’ as the advent of Britpop, so technically the 30th March 1992 – but of course Britpop didn’t just spring out of the woodwork fully formed. It had been percolating in response to a lacklustre British music scene at the time, which celebrated ‘shoegaze’ bands, and as a result of the explosion of Nirvana’s Nevermind with the music press’s resultant focus on American grunge. Personally, I regard Suede’s ‘The Drowners’ [11th May 1992] as a more important release than ‘Popscene’ in terms of garnering media attention, as it began a hype-snowball around Suede which brought the focus away from Seattle and back to new homegrown talent.
.     For your average Joe, who listened to the charts but didn’t read NME or Melody Maker – well, Britpop could’ve begun for him at various points. Public consciousness was originally invaded by Britpop at the 1993 Brit Awards [16th February 1993], when Suede caused a furore by performing ‘Animal Nitrate’, an ode to violent, gay sex and drugs (the name is a play on the drug ‘amyl nitrate’), then more prominently at the 1995 Brits [20th February 1995] when Blur won four awards as a result of chart-topping album Parklife. If average Joe really hadn’t been paying attention to the music scene, its most defining moment, the ‘Battle of Britpop’ [14th – 20th August 1995], took the British press (both tabloid and broadsheet) and even the po-faced TV news by storm. [The Battle of Britpop is explained here.]
.     The end point, again, varies. Commonly held views are that the release of Blur’s angular, Pavement-inspired self-titled album [10th February 1997], Oasis’s plodding misfire Be Here Now [21st August 1997], Radiohead’s OK Computer [21st May 1997] and, weirdly, Labour winning the 1997 General Election [1st May 1997] can all be seen as Britpop’s denouement. If you couldn’t bear to leave the party until the last fag-end had burnt out and shrivelled up, perhaps you’d consider Pulp’s album of angst and paranoia This Is Hardcore [30th March 1998] the very end of the movement. I’d say it ended with Be Here Now, largely because it was über-hyped, misguidedly, which warranted a mass-buying session from the British public before they realised it was kind of rubbish. Oasis were no longer the template for new bands to model themselves on, the other major bands had moved onto new styles, and the minor bands were cleared from labels’ rostra to make way for either more commercial bands, or more creative ones.

The infamous picture of Noel Gallagher hobnobbing with Tony Blair at 10 Downing Street in 1997.

.     Who?: The tag of Britpop has been applied to the likes of Coldplay, Travis and Keane (though they’re more like ‘borepop’, if you ask me). In those instances, ‘Britpop’ refers to the far more vague notion of British pop music. Acts synonymous with the Britpop movement, however, are Blur and Oasis, usually seen as its main players. Other key bands of the time included Pulp, Suede, Sleeper, Echobelly, Elastica and butt-of-Britpop-jokes Menswear. Or ‘Menswe@r’, if you want to get technical about it. (You can tell it was the 90s, can’t you?) Although many of these have receded from public consciousness – including one-time ‘fastest-selling UK debut album of all time’ record holders Elastica – all enjoyed some amount of chart success and media attention, not to mention (in the cases of Blur and Menswear, anyway) a near-religious fervour from Smash Hits-reading teenage girls. As a joke from the time suggests (“What’s 40 foot long, has no pubes and goes “Aaaaaaah!”? The front row of a Blur concert”).
.     On the other hand, not all British bands of the mid-90s tapped into the Britpop market. Some, like Take That, were just your generic dancing-puppet boyband troupe, the sort that makes you forget there was a time before The X Factor; others, like Radiohead, shunned the pervasive sense of ‘Britishness’ (or, it’s been asserted, Englishness masquerading as Britishness) and the prevalent nostalgia for the ‘golden age’ of the 1960s. The espousing of ‘Englishness’ resulted in British-but-not-English bands feeling alienated from the scene and developing their own sound, aspects of which opposed Britpop values – among them, Mogwai in Scotland (who sold ‘Blur are shite’ t-shirts in 1999, post-Britpop), the Manic Street Preachers in Wales and Ash in Northern Ireland.
.     Other important, non-musical figures of the time included Alan McGee, founder of the Creation record label which signed Oasis, and future Prime Minister Tony Blair. Blair’s past as the lead singer in a rock band (Ugly Rumours) and fondness for rock and roll made him a VIP at various music awards, while his aides attempted to secure the support of Blur and Oasis to appeal to the younger electorate – leading to the famous ‘Noel Gallagher at 10 Downing Street’ pictures.

Noel Gallagher's iconic Union Flag guitar. Britpop is about more than just Noel Gallagher, but he's in a lot of useful Britpop-related images...

.     What/why?: I’ve already mentioned that it was a reaction to and against grunge and, to a lesser extent, shoegazing. The Britpop rhetoric centres on the promotion of a quintessentially English ideal that defines itself in opposition to the self-loathing of grunge, combined with a sense of nostalgia for Britain’s musical progeny. It doesn’t have to be the lyrics that reflect this; some bands used regional accents to steep themselves in Anglocentrism, while others used the prevalent imagery of the Union Flag in pictures or on their guitars (Noel Gallagher, cough cough). The nostalgia’s discussed in the ‘Influences’ section below.
.     There was also an espousal of the commercialisation of indie. Chart placings began to matter in the wake of the Battle of Britpop, with record companies becoming increasingly ruthless towards artists who hadn’t had a top 20 hit. In order to hit the mass market that was required for that yardstick of success, many artists compromised the experimental tendencies that would mark them out of the chart game. They instead sought ‘tunes the milkman could whistle’ (The Boo Radleys’ ‘Wake Up Boo!’ being a prime example) to ensure that Top of the Pops performance that would get them further recognition by the public.
.     Britpop has often been associated with the rise of lad culture and creation of ‘the lager-eater’, a bullish young male who enjoys stereotypically masculine pursuits like drinking beer and going to the football. As such, it’s become associated with rampant misogyny, although this is not necessarily true. Elastica were three-quarters female, while Lush and Echobelly were not only half female, but Echobelly’s singer and guitarist were rare examples of black women in rock, with their guitarist Debbie Smith upping the rarity factor by also being a lesbian. Justine Frischmann, lead singer of Elastica, also championed women’s choice to appear in lad’s magazines if they wanted to, seeing potential for women to empower themselves through it rather than adopting the raging-feminists-with-pitchforks discourse that it’s misogynist pressures that drive women to become involved in the adult magazine industry. It’s also been noted that Britpop’s female lyricists (Frischmann, Sonya Madan in Echobelly, Louise Wener in Sleeper) imbued their lyrics with more wit than many of their male counterparts, a forebearer of the ‘girl power’ that the Spice Girls would promote as Britpop derailed.

The Good Mixer, a Camden pub that was frequented by various Britpop band members during the 90s, as it is today.

Where?: London was the epicentre of Cool Britannia. Many of the places that became synonymous with Britpop were in or around Camden (The Good Mixer, The Dublin Castle), while various clubs housed Britpop’s key players at different stages of its life, from Syndrome in its gestation period to The Groucho Club as the bands and their entourages became more famous (Alex James, Damien Hirst and Keith Allen in particular became part of their furniture in 1995-6). Plenty of bands embraced Mockney accents or referenced areas of London in their lyrics.
.     Obviously, not everyone was London-based. Manchester, still clinging onto its Acid House-era [see below] ‘cool’ status, of course spawned Oasis, who made no attempt to hide their origins in either interviews or vocal style. Similarly, Jarvis Cocker’s strong Sheffield accent distinguished Pulp from the legions of Laaaahndaaahn-based bands, and the band never relocated from their native city. Liverpool, whose influence held strong in the shape of quasi-music gods The Beatles, produced fringe players Cast and proto-Britpop band The La’s, best known for classic ‘There She Goes’.

Brett Anderson with his icon, David Bowie. (There weren't any good quality pics of Damon Albarn with Ray Davies, so I went with this instead.)

Influences: The most obvious point of reference for Britpop artists was the British Invasion of the 1960s. The Beatles, Kinks, Small Faces and Rolling Stones were all mentioned time and time again by the artists and the press (The Beatles/Stones myth particularly being applied to Blur/Oasis during the Battle of Britpop). Oasis in particular pilfered from The Beatles and their respective members’ solo careers – ever noticed how much the opening of ‘Don’t Look Back In Anger’ sounds like John Lennon’s ‘Imagine’?
Closer in years to the 90s, David Bowie influenced Britpop’s forefathers, Suede, immeasurably – both in sound and style. (At 3:10 in their debut video, Brett Anderson looks exactly like Bowie.) Later, Suede’s more populist third album, Coming Up, sounded markedly more like 70s glam rock pin-ups T Rex. The Smiths were also a common port of call for influence, with most of the most important bands being inspired by Morrissey’n’Marr in their youth. This worked both ways, with Morrissey attending several early Suede gigs and including a cover of Suede B-side ‘My Insatiable One’ in his 1992 live shows.
.     Britpop can in some ways be seen as a reappropriation of the ‘acid house’, or baggy, scene, spearheaded by the Happy Mondays and Stone Roses. Centred in Manchester (the movement sometimes being called ‘Madchester’) and rising at the end of the 80s before being blown away by grunge, ‘baggy’ saw, ideals-wise, a move away from the threadbare indie ideal of the early 80s and a move towards capitalist mores. Musically, it was mostly a celebration of hedonistic excess and braggadocio, though The Stone Roses were far less dance-y and more soft-spoken than the Mondays. Oasis were especially influenced by the scene, though Brett Anderson was an unlikely Mondays disciple, while Jarvis Cocker recounts a rave-gone-wrong scenario in Pulp single ‘Sorted For E’s And Whizz’. Blur, on the other hand, were latecomers to the baggy party, with their debut album Leisure being released towards the tail-end of the period and hugely indebted to its indie-dance sound.
.     More obscure influences included Scott Walker, an idol for Pulp (he later went onto produce their swansong album We Love Life in 2001), while Blur’s Anglocentric ‘Life’ trilogy – Modern Life Is Rubbish, Parklife and, analogously, The Great Escape – drew on ‘quintessentially English’ music hall traditions of the late 19th and early 20th century with B-sides like ‘Daisy Bell’ and ‘Let’s All Go Down The Strand’. Elastica referenced Adam and the Ants, Wire and The Stranglers as references, settling in court with the latter two due to blatant musical plagiarism from each. Indie legends The Fall were Albarn-, Anderson- and Frischmann-beloved, with Damon Albarn revisiting his love for Mark E Smith by collaborating with him on Gorillaz track ‘Glitter Freeze’ in 2010 and one of Suede’s earliest tracks, ‘Implement Yeah’, written while Justine Frischmann was still a member, being written about him (incorporating an anecdote about Smith calling Suede’s label’s manager, Saul Galpern, a ‘Scotch homo’). Finally, Graham Coxon’s well-documented love of independent ideals meant that some of his early influences included barely-heard-of indie acts like Talulah Gosh, The Cardiacs and The Pastels.

Spot the Acid House/Britpop artists on the V Festival line-up! BRITPOP LIVES YET!

Consequences: The aftermath of Britpop saw a move away from the ‘Oasis-by-numbers’ everyman music that 1996 had nurtured, and towards more intellectual bands like Radiohead and the Manic Street Preachers. (Not to be elitist, but can you imagine Oasis singing a lyric like “Libraries give us power”?) The commercialisation of alternative music continues to affect perceptions of success; although independent artists are flourishing in the age of the internet, you can’t read NME these days without at least one band bemoaning the ‘death of rock’ based on the lack of singles chart influence that rock bands have. Several long-running music publications, such as Select and Melody Maker, closed after Britpop’s heyday due to falling sales, and even now, indie harbinger NME is reportedly facing crisis for the same reason.
.     As for its legacy, a second wave of Britpop emerged in the mid-00’s, with the Kaiser Chiefs, Franz Ferdinand and the Arctic Monkeys becoming incredibly successful. Attempted Britpop revivalists, Viva Brother, weren’t as lucky last year and ended up being reviled by, well, pretty much everyone, leading to their split earlier this month. The current trend for reunions means that many of the original Britpop bands – Suede, Blur, Pulp, Shed Seven, Dodgy – are riding high on festival line-ups again this year. Yet, even as a Britpop-lover, I’ve found myself wondering if this nostalgia is strangling opportunities for new artists to get themselves heard. How many people are going to festivals this year so they can watch The Inspiral Carpets?
That said, the finest albums from the period continue to do well in ‘Greatest Albums Ever’ lists in magazines, especially Definitely Maybe, Dog Man Star, Parklife and Different Class. Oasis’s seminal sophomore album (What’s The Story) Morning Glory, meanwhile, remains the third biggest-selling album in the UK of all time (though, given Adele’s 21’s glory, for how much longer…).
.     You may not agree with the overt patriotism or the accusations of sexism within the movement. But as someone writing in the 2010s, when soulless dance tracks wind round the singles chart like poison ivy, the thought of a bygone era where people got seriously het up over which rock song would top the chart is a pleasant daydream indeed. It’s only been relived in recent memory by Rage Against The Machine’s Christmas #1 victory over Joe McElderry in 2009, and wasn’t that bloody exciting?

*Tragically, I did just that earlier this month. It involved going up to Hampstead Heath and wandering around for ages, either because Google Maps’ instructions are over-complicated or because I’m a terrible navigator. (You decide.) Incidentally, here is the place in question. It was called The Sausage Machine at the time:


Reading 2011: Who Rocked and Who Sucked – Saturday

Despite sticky mud, a near-death experience at the hands of The Vaccines’ fans and missing Brian May on stage with My Chemical Romance, it was off to the arena for another hard day’s gigging. Here are the bands I saw on Saturday.

NB: * denotes that I saw their full set.


 1.    Yuck

Saturday, NME/Radio 1 Stage

Due to a pub ‘festival breakfast’ offer which took an hour to materialize (and even then was only comprised of sausage and chips), I only managed to get to the NME stage for the last 20 minutes of their set despite whizzing through the still-impenetrable mud as best I could (‘whizzing’ through mud equates to marching very quickly and trying not to fall over) to the arena, thinking “Please, please, please can they not have played ‘Get Away’ yet…”. And, to my absolute joy, the first full song I heard them play was the wonderful ‘Get Away’, which is one of the best songs I’ve discovered this summer. They sounded great, though I don’t know how much the relief/joy factor inflated how good they actually were.

 2.    The Pigeon Detectives

Saturday, Main Stage

Got back for their last few songs, which incorporated some of their biggest singles – ‘I’m Not Sorry’ and the like. As an owner of their first two albums, I’d come to expect that their singles were good, but their album tracks were generic indie fodder; I expected their singles to be well-performed and the rest of the songs in their set immediately forgettable. Right on the latter count and wrong on the former – their lead singer’s voice just didn’t sound up to it on the Main Stage. Very disappointing.

 3.    Big Deal

Saturday, Festival Republic Stage

I’d never heard of them, and was really only watching them to fill the wait before Seasick Steve came on, but they were your typical boy/girl softly-softly vocals duo that we’ve been seeing so many of recently (The xx, Summer Camp, etc) – easy on the ear, wispy on the eye and totally inoffensive, but probably not going to set the world alight. They released their debut album two days after I saw them, though, so at least I can feel cutting-edge now.

 4.    Seasick Steve*

Saturday, Main Stage

For a 70-year-old ex-hobo, he’s done incredibly well for himself, especially considering that he’s only broken the markets in the past five years. And considering his age again, his live performance is impressive, even getting a girl from the audience to come on stage so he could serenade her. Using a broom as an instrument on stage is awesome enough, but using it effectively is several levels above… Having watched him, it comes as no surprise that he’s become renowned for his live performances, though he was nearly overshadowed (quite literally) by the impressive four-person-high human tower which built itself near us.

 5.    Two Door Cinema Club*

Saturday, Main Stage

They’ve recently hit the big time (read: started being played on Radio 1 and as a result have reached the Monday morning masses), so I expected a large and enthusiastic crowd – which was just what appeared. They were alright – decent enough, interacting with the crowd, churning out tracks from their album – but the songs themselves all sound fairly similar. This means that, when there’s only really one song by them that you know (‘What You Know’), you think that every song is that song, which is awkward when you get excited and start dancing before realising you’ve never heard this song before. That is, until you’ve given up hope of them ever playing it and then recognise the opening chords and find yourself part of a huge outdoors indie disco.

So, to summarise; they were ok, but the songs themselves lacked something.

 6.    Madness*

Saturday, Main Stage

I didn’t know most of the songs in their set – that is, until the last twenty minutes, at which point it went from a fun gig to a great one. I’m still at a loss as to why they were so low down the bill when they were at least the third biggest name on Saturday’s bill (for those who are more grey around the temples, like my dad, they were probably the only recognisable name), especially considering the bumper crowd and bumper audience reaction (i.e.: tens of thousands-strong karaoke party) to pop pearls like ‘It Must Be Love’, ‘Baggy Trousers’, ‘House of Fun’ and ‘Our House’. It definitely was worth the hour-long awkward feeling of “Do I know this song? I feel like I should know this song. No, Jen, you’re not just here for ‘House of Fun’ et al, you’re also here to learn their back catalogue… though I really do wish they’d play ‘It Must Be Love’ already… BAD JEN. I’M A FAILURE” through the more anonymous ska numbers at the beginning.

 7.    Cloud Control

Saturday, Festival Republic Stage [3rd row, stage-right]

We were really only there to get to the front for Smith Westerns, my first ‘must-see/get-in-my-way-and-I’ll-kill-you’ band of the weekend. [The other three were Pulp, Best Coast and Muse.] But we were early enough to see nearly all of Cloud Control’s set and, although I’d never heard of them before, I was very impressed. They’re a three-piece outfit with a distressingly attractive lead singer who specialise in indie folk – unlike Mumford and Sons, who I dislike intensely, they’ve got more interesting layers to their music (think church-like harmonies, oohs and being generally less lethargic) and are the lo-fi antidote to overproduced pop, plus they don’t have that bloody annoying banjo – and I definitely made a mental note to check them out when I got home. Their album is good, but it’s far more restrained sound-wise – they’re a lot louder and a lot fuzzier live. Very good indeed.

 8.    Smith Westerns*

Saturday, Festival Republic Stage [1st row, stage-right]

Smith Westerns, along with Best Coast, have been the soundtrack to my summer; their eponymous first album was on repeat when I was on holiday and lead single from their new album Dye It Blonde, ‘Weekend’, currently stands at a heady 6th place in my iTunes ’25 Most Played’ playlist*. I was a little disappointed that they didn’t play more songs from their debut album, though that’s just because I know the songs better. Hopefully most of the crowd (who didn’t seem to have a clue who they were or know any of their songs) will have felt about them how I felt about Cloud Control, and made a mental note to look them up; I thought they turned in a good show for their first English festival performance, translating their fuzz-toned sound well for the stage and, intriguingly, appearing to have a bassist without a face (though maybe it was lurking underneath his hair). I can only hope that those who hadn’t heard of them enjoyed it as much as I did…

 9.    The National

Saturday, Main Stage [5th row, stage-left]

Another ‘band-I’m-only-here-to-see-so-I-can-push-people-out-the-way-to-see-the-next-band-who-I-WILL-kill-you-if-you-get-in-my-way-for’. I haven’t listened to them much, though I’ve quite liked what I’ve listened to online, but I didn’t find them particularly inspiring to watch. Mind you, I wasn’t focusing too much on the performance; it was more of a tactical weave through the holes in the crowd to get as close as possible to the stage for Pulp. And in any case, I was way too excited about seeing them to really focus much on The National, though I think the majority of the front portion of the crowd felt the same way.

 10.  Pulp*

Saturday, Main Stage [3rd row, stage-left]

Well, this was my highlight of the entire festival. Even if I hadn’t known or particularly liked Pulp, I’d have still watched them; it’s universally agreed that their live performances are spectacular, and this one somehow managed to better my expectations. You see, a band can play their songs as fantastically as possible, but that’s not a substitute for wit, charisma and general star quality. The best performances are carried out by natural performers – like, say, Jarvis Cocker. A crowd that had been muted and staid during The National suddenly became hysterical as questions and phrases were projected onto a sheet in front of the stage, each designed to kick the hysteria up a notch; one of my friends thought this went on too long – it probably did – but, for the Britpop nostalgists who had forked out £190 on a weekend ticket just for this, it was the only way of making us more excited about it before they launched into the totally reunion-apt ‘Do You Remember The First Time?’.

A setlist mostly cobbled from the track listing of Different Class, with a couple chucked in from His ‘n’ Hers (including my favourite Pulp song, ‘Babies’) and one each from penultimate and last albums This Is Hardcore (the title track) and We Love Life (‘Sunrise’) was seamlessly threaded together in an oddly effective narrative structure by Mr Cocker, who punctuated the interludes with anecdotes, witticisms and number-crunching (namely, that it had been 17 years to the day that they had first performed at Reading and first performed a little ditty about class which just went on to be their biggest hit…). But that’s not to say that this is a great set just because of his banter; he – not forgetting the rest of the band, who may be overshadowed by their magnetic vocalist, but without who he wouldn’t be here – brings songs that often sound good but slightly flat to life. I’ve always thought that ‘F.E.E.L.I.N.G.C.A.L.L.E.D.L.O.V.E’ (try typing that when you’re rat-arsed…) was let down because it took far, far too long to get going, but on stage, the long intro brings it a compelling atmosphere. By the time ‘Common People’ gets going, you’ve forgotten what it’s like to have any personal space whatsoever, but you couldn’t care less – Jarvis Cocker is thrusting on speaker only metres away from you, thousands of people are yelling the lyrics in unison and bouncing around like resting has gone out of fashion, and you’re as close as you can get to it being 1995 again. My idea of heaven, basically. [Though as you will soon read, it could have been even closer to being a big old Britpop party.]

 11.  The Strokes

Saturday, Main Stage

Someone at NME that decided that The Strokes gave a better performance than Pulp. That someone was clearly blind, deaf and crazy. That’s not to say it wasn’t a decent performance – their songs speak for themselves – but it just lacked something that Pulp come lathered in; charisma. Jarvis Cocker is, as I’ve pontificated on at length, a natural performer, whereas Julian Casablancas looks like he wants to be moping in a corner with a glass of milk instead of being on stage in front of thousands of people. There was nothing wrong with them, but they were totally outplayed by Pulp – mind you, most people would have been. That said, Jarvis ‘n’ Julian’s duet for The Cars’ ‘Just What I Needed’ was inspired. Definitely the highlight of their set.

I’m probably the only person who was disappointed that the rumour about The Strokes cancelling and being replaced by Suede was untrue. Not that I knew this rumour existed until I got home, but now I know there was a chance of this happening… well, it nearly made me shed a little tear. Ah well, they were good enough for me to not have a full on weep-fest…

A review of the Sunday coming soon. I actually mean the ‘soon’ this time, mainly because I’m beginning to forget what the bands I didn’t watch for ages were like…

*TOTALLY IRRELEVANT RAMBLE: Sandwiched between the full version of Suede’s ‘Stay Together’ (which, admittedly, is nearly three times longer than ‘Weekend’) and Laura Marling’s ‘Ghosts’, which is the only other non-90s song in my top 11. You may be surprised to learn that my #1 song is not a Britpop song. You may not be surprised to learn that the other eight songs in my top 11 are. Name them all for a prize [NB: my LastFM isn’t totally accurate in this, so don’t go consulting there].

Introducing The Band: Suede

Ludicrous, pompous, outspoken, groundbreaking and brilliant. No, I’m not talking about Morrissey*. These are all words that describe Suede, the band who paved the way for British music’s mid-90s apogee. They may have undergone something of a critical renaissance of late, having released remastered and deluxe editions of their five studio albums in the spring, but they remain agonisingly anonymous to a large number of music fans. So, allow me to introduce you to them.

It’s not for want of trying that they’re not as canonised as they should be. The first band to be put on the cover of the now extinct music publication Melody Maker before they released a song, they then went on to win the 1993 Mercury Music Prize with their eponymous debut (and, philanthropically, donated the £100,000 reward to charity); this also reached #1 and sold over 100,000 copies in its first week. Having performed a nihilistic rendition of then forthcoming single ‘Animal Nitrate’ at the 1993 Brit Awards, they managed to break the top 10 of the singles chart – impressive considering the song’s lyrics deal with violent gay sex and drugs. Two more of their albums reached #1, with their third, Coming Up also producing 5 top ten singles, and produced a top-10 B-sides compilation, Sci-Fi Lullabies – rare for any band**. Their second album, Dog Man Star, which reached #3 in 1994, is widely regarded amongst music critics as a classic album. Despite dire album sales for their last album, A New Morning, they still managed to sell out the O2 Arena last December following their reunion. They still have a cult following, and journalists have been quick to praise the remastered editions of their albums, as they were when the originals came out back in the 90s. That’s not even delving into their apparent absurdity in hiring a 17-year-old schoolboy to replace guitarist Bernard Butler after his fraught departure during the recording of Dog Man Star. Aforementioned schoolboy, Richard Oakes, went on to co-write all of Coming Up’s singles – not bad for a boy whose previous band was called ‘The Poole Grammar Stompers’ and whose written talents had previously been plied in Classics, History and French.

Number-crunching and fact-churning aside, they played a role whose importance cannot be stressed enough. Although Blur experienced fleeting fame off the back of Leisure’s money single ‘There’s No Other Way’ in 1991, their following efforts ‘Bang’ and ‘Popscene’ failed to trouble the top 20 as their commercial impact was wiped out by an American grunge invasion courtesy of Nirvana. Suede were the first British band since The Stone Roses to excite the music press, hence Melody Maker’s keenness to advertise them before debut single ‘The Drowners’ came out [Ed: In the week I was born, no less! Two excellent things released in one week]. Although ‘Popscene’ is usually considered the first Britpop single, ‘The Drowners’ was the first to get people talking, buoyed by fantastic B-sides ‘To The Birds’ and ‘My Insatiable One’. From here on, public interest snowballed – eventually leading to their last-minute inclusion in the Brits line-up after an NME campaign championing the cause. They also made use of the Anglocentric rhetoric that Blur embraced wholeheartedly in Modern Life Is Rubbish and Parklife both in interviews and, more subtly, in their songs; ‘The Next Life’, Suede’s closer, features the lines “Far away – so far away/Down to Worthing, and work there/Far away, we’ll go far away/And flog ice-creams ‘til the company’s on its knees!”. Their ascent was centred on a very personal desire to inflict schadenfreude upon nemeses Blur following a messy love triangle between Brett Anderson, former Suede member Justine Frischmann and Damon Albarn, and – in 1993 at least – they were avenged. Ironically, it was with an album in parts charting Anderson and Frischmann’s break-up.

They didn’t rest on their laurels, of a fantastic debut album and a host of jaw-dropping B-sides; they released stand-alone single ‘Stay Together’ on Valentine’s Day 1994 amid an increasingly icy atmosphere between Anderson and Butler, reaching #3. Although it’s since been disowned by the band, the radio-edited single is good, and on the single disc lurks both the beautiful paean to a junkie lover ‘The Living Dead’ and the glorious eight-and-a-half minute full version of the single – complete with two minutes of deranged guitar parts by recently-bereaved Butler, an incomprehensible drug-fuelled rant by Anderson over the top (possibly featuring the line “Take me to Stephen Fry!” at 5:48), and a triumphant horn section. The fractious recording sessions for the second album saw a stand-off between Butler and producer Ed Bueller, leading Butler to issue an ultimatum; one of them would have to leave. Anderson stuck with Bueller, and finished Butler’s guitar parts by himself. The finished product, Dog Man Star, is as far-flung from the better-selling likes of Parklife and Definitely Maybe as can be imagined, especially considering that Suede helped wedge the door open for the likes of Blur and Oasis to become successful. It’s a ridiculously melodramatic, saturnine album, with Orwellian imagery and an all-pervading sense of gloom, but it’s ambitious, intricate and intensely cinematic. Any album with the opening lines of ‘Dog man star took a suck on a pill/And stabbed the cerebellum with a curious quill’ was always going to be slightly avant-garde, but it is in the best possible way. Nine-minute penultimate track ‘The Asphalt World’ is stand-out stunning both musically and lyrically, telling Anderson’s autobiographical story of a love triangle between a boy, his girlfriend and her girlfriend. The whole album justifies the 9/10 ratings bestowed on it on its release, along with every word of praise it received.

Complimentgasm over. Having made their work of art, they ventured into brighter territory to again avenge themselves over Blur, whose fame had skyrocketed following their Brits success in 1995 as Suede’s internal problems threatened to overshadow Dog Man Star’s brilliance. Coming Up sold over a million copies in Europe and Asia (excluding UK sales of over half a million), taking Britpop international in a way that the period’s other bands never quite achieved***; despite the fact that Britpop’s dominance was firmly embedded in the charts in 1996 following the Battle of Britpop, it was still an achievement for Trash, The Beautiful Ones, Lazy, Filmstar and Saturday Night to all chart as highly as they did. Even Rihanna would have difficulty with that kind of consistency.

Unfortunately, their last two albums – Head Music and A New Morning – were poor follow-ups to their excellent predecessors. The former was plagued by Anderson’s heroin addiction and Codling’s Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, whereas the latter just suggested that they’d all been burned out from mind-blowing excess and extravagance; it’s not unlike the circumstances behind Be Here Now and Standing on the Shoulder of Giantsthe first one betraying the influence of substance abuse and the latter being ‘stripped back’ to compensate, though I’m of the opinion that Standing… is a better album than A New Morning. Having run out of ideas, they split in 2003 and embarked on alternative projects; most intriguingly, including Anderson and Butler’s reunion as The Tears in 2004. But now they’re back, and apparently still brilliant live (due to the Uni of Exeter’s inconvenient exam and lecture scheduling, I haven’t been able to see them yet – sob, weep, blubber).

If you’ve learned anything from this article, it should be the following things:

1. Suede are underrated and unquestionably important in the rise of Britpop (and, subsequently, contributed to the success and perhaps creation of various excellent albums from this period),

2. Their first three albums are fantastic, and you should listen to them if you haven’t already,

3. You should bolster the ranks of Suede fans. They may not be household names in the same way that Blur and Oasis still are, but they deserve to be, and you should protect their legacy, and…

4. I’m a mad fan girl who can’t shut up about them.

So please, give your ears generously to Suede’s first three albums, and make a Jen happy today. Thank you.

*I’d be reluctant to call anyone who compared Anders Breivik to KFC as brilliant. Even if Moz did write the lyrics to ‘There Is A Light That Never Goes Out’ and said of Brett Anderson “He’ll never forgive God for not making him Angie Bowie”. He’s eminently quotable, but also a bit of a tosser. So there.

** Oasis’ The Masterplan reached #2 in 1998, but Suede never quite reached the same level of notoriety as the Gallaghers, so it’s still a remarkable achievement. Incidentally, Sci-Fi Lullabies and The Masterplan are both excellent albums.

*** Oasis and Elastica nearly broke America, but considering Oasis’s imperial phase and 4-million-plus sales of (What’s The Story) Morning Glory? in England, they didn’t do nearly as well as they could have. Elastica were ravaged by drugs before they could capitalise on their modest reviews success – though Robert Christgau still awarded their second album, The Menace, a rare ‘A’ rating in 2001. But I’ll be writing an article about them soon, so I’ll write more about them there.